Tag Archives: gender inequality

Informal Work In Tunisia: A Factor To Be Included In Strategies Addressing Gender Based Violence

Informal Work in Tunisia: A Factor to be Included in Strategies Addressing Gender Based Violence

Photo: Mégane Ghorbani

FRIDAY FILE: To commemorate International Domestic Workers’ Day on June 16 and in parallel to a seminar considering a unified strategy against violence against women in Tunisia, hosted by the Association of Tunisian Women for Research and Development’s in Tunis on June 13, 2014, AWID takes a look at the instruments available and the gaps that still exist in addressing violence against informal women workers in Tunisia.

By Mégane Ghorbani

Article 46 of the new Tunisian constitution states that “The State shall take all necessary measures to eradicate violence against women” [1]. Three months after its enactment, the May 2014 recommendations made in Tunisia by the mechanisms of the United Nations’ human rights system [2], stipulate that violence cannot be eradicated without reforming legal codes. These recommendations also emphasize the need to strengthen oversight of informal sector work.

Women in the informal sector

The economic crisis has intensified the growth of informal work globally [3]. In Tunisia, informal employment, defined by researcher Nidhal Ben Cheikh as, “unprotected employment or the absence of social protection” [4], accounts for 54% of jobs. [5]. According to the Tunisian Union of Industry, Trade and Handicrafts (UTICA), the informal sector affects 85% of Tunisian enterprises [6].

While the population of working age “15 and over” is almost equally male and female [7], there are gender inequalities in terms of access to employment in the formal sector, notably an unemployment rate in the first quarter of 2014 of 21.5% for women, compared to 12.7% for men [8]. This unequal access to the formal labour market pushes more women into the informal sector.  A survey conducted in 2013 on informal workers in Greater Tunis shows that unlike men, all women are aware of their labour situation and some say “informal work is our lot in life” [9].

In the textile industry, a 2012 research project focused on violations of women workers’ economic and social rights in the coastal region of Monastir [10]. The study shows that 86% of the workforce is female because of the perceived low wages; and it discusses cases of informality in sectors that are ostensibly formal. Twenty six percent of women workers surveyed did not have social protection and 12.7% did not even have a job contract. Seven percent of women workers are illiterate and only 46% attended primary school.

A multidimensional form of violence

Regardless of gender, informal workers are all victims of a form of systemic discrimination in Tunisian society because of their lack of social status recognized by the state; and their subsequent exclusion from social services, with no protection from National Social Security or National Health Insurance. Informal women workers, however, have to contend with other forms of gender-based violence.

Firstly, they experience gender-based discrimination because of the patriarchal system in Tunisian society. Research conducted on the situation of women in rural areas in 2013 shows that they have limited access to formal and informal financial support, especially when seeking investments, because “they are considered less creditworthy than men ” [11]. In addition, because of the gendered division of roles within the family, some women do not control the money they themselves have generated. As one participant stated in a report on women’s work in agriculture[12], “Indeed, it is rare to see women sitting around doing nothing, when we gather to chat and whenever we have a free moment, we weave. Moreover, blankets and carpets are a true form of savings because whenever he needs cash, the head of the family can go sell them at the nearest weekly market and use the funds.”

Furthermore, violence in informal work places is pervasive and many women are victims of violence and sexual harassment. A survey by the Association of Tunisian Women for Research and Development (AFTURD) on full time domestic workers, of which 96.7% [13] have no job contract; also shows that 14.2% of respondents claim to have been victims of sexual abuse at the hand of their employers. Worryingly 16.2% young women say they were forced into sexual touching and 18.2% into forced sexual intercourse. In addition, many women workers in the region of Monastir claim their low social status leaves them vulnerable to street harassment [14]. These attacks generally go unreported, as women in informal work have no legal protection. All of these factors undermine women’s rights and perpetuate gender inequalities in the society

Instruments to counter this violence

In Tunisia, workers are protected by various international and national instruments: the International Labour Organization (ILO) instruments, including Convention No. 118 concerning equal treatment in matters of social security; the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and its Optional Protocol adopted by Tunisia, on which the reservations were officially lifted in April 2014, should ensure the principles of gender equality and non-discrimination, including stereotyped gender roles and prejudice (art. 5), rural women (art. 14), employment (Article 11) and bank loans (art.13) [15]. The Tunisian labour code also regulates work relationships and conditions, as well as penalties for violations. The new Constitution [16], adopted in January 2014, establishes in its preamble the equality of all citizens, the right to work in decent conditions (Article 40) and the role of the State in the fight against violence and guaranteeing of women’s rights (Art. 46).

Gaps, contradictions and lack of implementation

Despite all these instruments ostensibly available to address violence against informal women workers, a major hurdle persists in Tunisia in challenging informality as a factor, due to some legislative gaps or contradictions within the new constitution. The Penal Code, specifically Articles 218, 227a, 226b and 239, does not provide an overriding law that criminalizes all forms of violence against women [17]. Additionally, Tunisia has not yet ratified Convention No. 189 of the ILO on decent work for domestic workers to ensure the “right to a healthy and safe working environment” (art.13). Also, the Tunisian labour code does not mention gender based violence or sexual harassment.

In light of these loopholes, the ongoing development of a new legal framework – which was discussed during a December 2013 seminar hosted by the Ministry of Women’s and Family Affairs, the European Council and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities – should also take into account the aspect of informality of women’s employment to effectively address all forms of gender based violence.

In addition, organizations supporting victims of gender-based violence have a role to play on the ground, because as Saloua Kannou, AFTURD president, explained, “establishing a database on violence against women in Tunisia will limit the prevalence of this phenomenon” [18].

[1]Constitution de La République Tunisienne, 26 janvier 2014.

[2]The recommendations by the mechanisms of the United Nations’ human rights system in Tunisia, OHCHR Tunisia, May 2014.

[3]Global employment trends for women, International Labour Organization, December 2012.

[4] Nidhal Ben Cheikh, “L’extension de la protection sociale à l’économie informelle à l’épreuve de la transition en Tunise », Centre de Recherches et d’Etudes Sociales”, May 2013.

[5]Tunisia: Economic Challenges and Social Post – Revolution, African Development Bank, 2012.

[6]Exploratory study on human trafficking in Tunisia, International Organization for Migration – Tunisian Republic, June 2013.

[7] Women represent about 150,000 more people in the first quarter 2014.Source: Evolution de la population en âge d’activité ” 15 ans et plus ” selon le sexe 2006-2014, Institut National de la Statistique.

[8] Taux de chômage selon le sexe 2006-2014, Institut National de la Statistique. Note that these figures are contested due to the obsolete calculation methods used by the official statistics institutions.

[9] Tunisian Inclusive Labor Initiative (TLILI) study, El Amouri Institute, January 2013.

[10] Violations des droits économiques et sociaux des femmes travailleuses dans le secteur du textile, Forum Tunisien pour les Droits Economiques et Sociaux, 2013.

[11]Recherche sur la situation des femmes en milieu rural tunisien et leur accès aux services publics dans onze gouvernorats de la Tunisie, CEDR-Agricole, décembre 2013.

[12] Le travail des femmes dans le secteur agricole: Entre précarité et empowerment, Population Council, June 2011.

[13]Les aides ménagères à temps complet. Violences et non droits. AFTURD, 2008-2009.

[14]Violations des droits économiques et sociaux des femmes travailleuses dans le secteur du textile, Forum Tunisien pour les Droits Economiques et Sociaux, 2013

[15] Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women.

[16]Constitution de La République Tunisienne, 26 janvier 2014.

[17]The recommendations by the mechanisms of the United Nations’ human rights system in Tunisia, OHCHR Tunisia

[18] “Une base de données et une stratégie unifiée pour lutter contre la violence à l’égard des femmes”, Babnet Tunisie, 13 juin 2014 .

From: http://www.awid.org/News-Analysis/Friday-Files/Informal-Work-in-Tunisia-A-Factor-to-be-Included-in-Strategies-Addressing-Gender-Based-Violence

EQUAL PAY DAY in France : the Ministry of Women’s Rights Launches an Application to Help Women Win the Battle for Equality

Salaires hommes-femmes : le compte n’y est pas

A l’occasion de l’Equal Pay Day, le ministère des Droits des femmes lance ce matin une application pour aider les Françaises à gagner la bataille de l’égalité salariale.

Florence Deguen | Publié le 07.04.2014

C'est aujourd'hui le jour de l'éagalité salarial homme-femme, l'Equal Pay Day. En France, l'écart est de l'ordre de 20% au profit des hommes

C’est aujourd’hui le jour de l’éagalité salarial homme-femme, l’Equal Pay Day. En France, l’écart est de l’ordre de 20% au profit des hommes

C’est l’une des rares dates symboliques du calendrier qui est censée remonter le temps chaque année… Mais qui stagne au début du . Autant dire qu’en ce 7 avril, les Françaises ne vont pas déboucher le champagne pour célébrer leur Equal Pay Day : il s’agit du jour symbolique où elles ont enfin engrangé le salaire que les hommes ont gagné au 31 décembre dernier.

Quatre mois de différence, 68 jours travaillés supplémentaires, en moyenne, pour parvenir à gagner autant. Désespérant ? Peut-être pas. D’abord parce que l’Equal Pay Day international, lui, aura lieu dans près de trois semaines : le 25 avril. Ensuite parce que les indicateurs de l’égalité professionnelle en semblent clignoter en faveur d’un léger mieux. « L’an prochain, la date aura basculé en mars », veut croire Christiane Robichon, la présidente de l’association Business and Professional Women qui organise cette journée en depuis 2009.

Les chiffres publiés ce matin par le ministère du Travail, que nous avons pu obtenir en exclusivité et qui serviront à fixer l’Equal Pay Day de l’an prochain, semblent lui donner raison : on est enfin passé sous la barre des 20 % d’écart de salaire… Même s’il reste des domaines, comme l’assurance ou la banque notamment, où il vaut encore clairement mieux être un homme (voir infographie). Mais comment tirer ce jour symbolique vers février, janvier et pourquoi pas même au 31 décembre ? Pour Najat Vallaud-Belkacem, la ministre des Droits des femmes qui a beaucoup secoué les entreprises ces deux dernières années (y compris en les tapant aux porte-monnaie), il est désormais temps de s’attaquer à une racine méconnue de l’inégalité professionnelle : les barrières que les femmes érigent… elles-mêmes. Ces « je n’ose pas demander une augmentation », « je ne sais pas m’imposer », « la compétition, ce n’est pas pour moi » qui expliqueraient jusqu’à 4 points de différence dans les salaires. A problématique aussi profonde, réponse carrément originale : la ministre lance aujourd’hui la première application pour mobiles et smartphones afin de coacher les femmes au travail. Une sorte de « serious game » (jeu qui permet de se former en s’amusant) que nous avons découvert en avant-première.

Cela n’empêchera sans doute jamais les salariées de voir filer sous leur nez des promotions pendant leur congé de maternité, mais gâce aux quiz sous la forme de vrai-faux et des conseils prodigués en vidéo, elles oseront peut-être taper du poing sur la table à leur retour. A ce jour, beaucoup ont renoncé. « Pensez-vous que la famille est plus importante que la vie professionnelle pour une femme ? » a demandé l’Insee aux Français. Les hommes sont 66 % à répondre oui. Chez les femmes, c’est quasiment le raz-de-marée : elles sont 78 % à acquiescer.

From: http://www.leparisien.fr/selection-editeurs/salaires-hommes-femmes-le-compte-n-y-est-pas-07-04-2014-3747601.php


Journée de l’égalité salariale entre les femmes et les hommes: Najat Vallaud-Belkacem lance une application

D’après les chiffres publiés par le ministère des Droits des femmes, les femmes doivent travailler 77 jours de plus que les hommes pour toucher le même salaire annuel.

Publié le 7 avril 2014

La Fédération Française BPW organise ce lundi la journée de l’égalité salariale entre les hommes et les femmes. Une initiative lancée il y a 5 ans pour sensibiliser les Français aux écarts salariaux toujours importants comme l’explique Christiane Robichon, présidente en France de BPW, dans l’Express. “On estime qu’en moyenne, les femmes gagnent 28% de moins que les hommes, selon une étude de l’Insee publiée en mars 2013. Nous avons donc choisi la date du lundi 7 avril pour organiser la journée de l’égalité salariale, car les femmes ont dû travailler 77 jours de plus que les hommes pour toucher le même salaire annuel. Le chiffre de 28% concerne les salariés du privé, à compétences égales” analyse-t-elle.

Mais selon elle, le cas de la France n’est pas un cas particulier. “Globalement, la situation est la même partout. Aux Etats-Unis, l’écart est de 23%. Dans les pays européens où notre association est présente, comme l’Allemagne, la Suisse, l’Italie ou le Royaume-Uni, la fourchette est à peu près la même aussi: les journées “Equal pay day” s’échelonnent entre le 15 mars et le 15 avril” constate la présidente de l’association.

Une association soutenue par le gouvernement et Najat Vallaud-Belkacem, la ministre des Droits des femmes. En effet, la ministre a annoncé dans “Le Parisien” le lancement d’une application pour mobiles et smartphones afin de “coacher” les femmes au travail, notamment dans la bataille pour l’égalité salariale. Appelée “Leadership Pour Elles”, cette application doit notamment permettre aux femmes de lutter contre “un paramètre qui n’est pas vraiment mesurable : une différence de confiance en soi qui se traduit par des attitudes différenciées au travail”. “C’est sur la confiance qu’il faut agir, en donnant à toutes les femmes des outils qui étaient jusqu’à présent l’apanage des cadres supérieurs appartenant à des réseaux de grandes écoles”, insiste NVB.

Najat Vallaud-Belkacem explique que le but est de “provoquer une prise de conscience”. “Sitôt téléchargée, l’application propose un quiz d’autodiagnostic” sur le niveau de confiance en soi de l’utilisatrice. “En fonction des réponses, l’appli vous ouvre des conseils (pour avoir par exemple des des pensées plus positive sur soi-même ou ouvrir… un compte Twitter” indique le journal. “Se comparer aux hommes, prendre conscience de sa valeur, c’est essentiel” conclut la ministre.

From:  http://www.atlantico.fr/pepites/journee-egalite-salariale-entre-femmes-et-hommes-najat-vallaud-belkacem-lance-application-1034848.html#FoLPoJ4tyW0QQ4Go.99

ead more at http://www.atlantico.fr/pepites/journee-egalite-salariale-entre-femmes-et-hommes-najat-vallaud-belkacem-lance-application-1034848.html#Gw5wcOMhvDyO5FdT.99

Journée de l’égalité salariale entre les femmes et les hommes: Najat Vallaud-Belkacem lance une application

D’après les chiffres publiés par le ministère des Droits des femmes, les femmes doivent travailler 77 jours de plus que les hommes pour toucher le même salaire annuel.

Read more at http://www.atlantico.fr/pepites/journee-egalite-salariale-entre-femmes-et-hommes-najat-vallaud-belkacem-lance-application-1034848.html#Gw5wcOMhvDyO5FdT.99

Report Stresses Need for Bold Moves toward Gender Equality at Work. Gender at Work: A Companion to the World Development Report on Jobs

Empowering women at work advances fight to end poverty, World Bank Group says

WASHINGTON, Feb. 20, 2014—A new report by the World Bank Group stresses the need for bold, coordinated actions to advance equal opportunities for women in the world of work, such as addressing gender biases early, expanding women’s access to property and finance, and raising legal retirement ages—with major payoffs in tackling poverty.

By virtually every global measure, women are more economically excluded than men, according to Gender at Work. Trends suggest women’s labor force participation worldwide over the last two decades has stagnated, dropping from 57 to 55 percent globally. This is despite accumulating evidence that jobs benefit women, families, businesses, and communities.

“We know that reducing gender gaps in the world of work can yield broad development dividends: improving child health and education, enhancing poverty reduction, and catalyzing productivity,” World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim said. “This agenda is urgent. Failure to act represents a huge missed opportunity. Progress so far has been too little and too slow.”

“Today, many more girls are going to school and living longer, healthier lives than 30 or even 10 years ago. But this has not translated into broader gains,” Kim said. “Too many women still lack basic freedoms and opportunities and face huge inequalities in the world of work.”

The report says since women face multiple constraints to jobs, starting early and extending throughout their lives, progressive, broad-based, and coordinated policy action is needed to close gender gaps. A companion to the 2013 World Development Report on jobs, it says options should include mainstreaming gender equality into jobs and growth strategies, reforming legal systems, and engaging the private sector in innovative solutions to promote gender equality.

It also says social norms can exacerbate the deprivation and constraints women face. Nearly four in 10 people globally—close to one half in developing countries—agree that when jobs are scarce, men are more entitled to them than women. Common constraints faced by the most disadvantaged women include lack of mobility, time, and skills, exposure to violence, and the absence of basic legal rights.

“Poor women in particular are likely to confront multiple, overlapping constraints,” World Bank Group Gender and Development Director Joni Klugman, co–author of the report with Matthew Morton, said. “Leveling the playing field and unleashing their economic potential could be a game-changer in tackling extreme poverty.”

In Latin America and the Caribbean, women’s labor force participation has risen by 35 percent since 1990. Analysis by the World Bank Group has found that in 2010, extreme poverty would have been 30 percent higher and average income inequality 28 percent higher, were it not for women’s increased income through increased labor earnings, access to pensions, and labor force participation from 2000-2010.

Country-level diagnostics are vital to help governments in determining the best policies and more involvement by the private sector—by far the largest source of jobs—is critical, the report says. The private sector can lead the way by creating family-friendly working environment and policies, attracting women into non-traditional roles and sectors, and reviewing human resource policies and systems for addressing discrimination and harassment. And more investment is needed to fill major gaps in data and knowledge.

To advance gender equality at work, the report recommends governments target actions that cover a woman’s life cycle—saying interventions that focus only on women of productive age start too late and end too early. Biases can begin very early in life, sometimes in subtle ways, making it ultimately difficult and costly to resolve inequality.

Gender at Work recommends a range of policies for governments to consider over a woman’s lifetime:

  • During childhood and youth, policies can tackle inequalities through education and training, such as incentives for girls to attend school.
  • For women of productive age, actions to be considered include eliminating restrictions in labor and employment; allowing and encouraging women’s ownership and joint-titling of land; and enforcing equitable inheritance laws. Other strategies include family-friendly leave and flexibility policies, affordable childcare and early child development programs, and infrastructure development to reduce burdens on women’s time for household and care work. Equal access to assets and financial services are vital. Addressing constraints outside the formal sector is particularly important in low-income countries, since most people—and more so women—do not work for wages and salaries.
  • For older women, governments can support equitable old-age labor regulations combined with appropriate social protection. Retirement and pension ages for men and women should be equal and targeted programs can upgrade skills among older women willing and able to work, while pension policies can provide protection without discouraging women’s work.

The report warns that ageing populations in the developing world will become increasingly important for governments to consider. Through 2050, the old-age dependency ratio in developing countries is expected to soar by 144 percent, during which time the child dependency ratio is projected to fall by 20 percent, altering the nature of the care burden in families and societies.

“Today only half of women’s productive potential is being utilized globally. This is a waste, since gender equality in the world of work is a win-win for development and for business. The commitment must begin with fostering girls’ and boys’ skills and aspirations equally from their early years, so it stays with them long enough that they and future generations enjoy a more equitable and prosperous world,” Klugman said.

The International Labor Organization estimates almost half of women’s productive potential globally is unutilized compared to 22 percent of men’s. Closing these gender gaps could yield enormous dividends for development: A Goldman Sachs study finds that narrowing gender gaps in em­ployment could push per capita income in emerging markets up to 14 percent higher by 2020.

From: http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2014/02/20/report-stresses-need-for-bold-moves-toward-gender-equality-at-work

Gender at Work: A Companion to the World Development Report on Jobs

A woman in Rajasthan, India, prepares to drive to her job as a teacher with the Education for All project. Photo: Michael Foley

  • Women around the world are more economically excluded than men.
  • Social norms affect women’s work by dictating the way they spend their time and undervaluing their potential.
  • Legal discrimination is a remarkably common barrier to women’s work.

WASHINGTON, Feb. 20, 2014—Women around the world still face huge, persistent gender gaps at work, according to a new report by the World Bank Group, which calls for bold, innovative measures to level the playing field and unleash women’s economic potential.

By virtually every global measure, women are more economically excluded than men, according to Gender at Work. Trends suggest women’s labor force participation worldwide has stagnated over the past 30 years, dropping from 57 to 55 percent globally, despite accumulating evidence that jobs benefit women, families, businesses, and communities.

“The reasons for this will differ from country to country, but we think that the persistence of norms—which means that women don’t have as much choice over their livelihoods as men—as well as legal barriers to work are both playing important roles,” said Jeni Klugman, World Bank Group Gender and Development Director.

A companion to the 2013 World Development Report on jobs, the report notes that since women face multiple constraints to jobs, starting early and extending throughout their lives, progressive, broad-based, and coordinated policy action is needed to close gender gaps. Common constraints include lack of mobility, time, and skills, exposure to violence, and the absence of basic legal rights.

Open Quotes

Poor women in particular are likely to confront multiple, overlapping constraints. Leveling the playing field and unleashing their economic potential could be a game-changer in tackling extreme poverty. Close Quotes

Jeni Klugman
World Bank Group Gender and Development Director and Report Co-Author

Gender at Work also finds that legal discrimination is a remarkably common barrier to women’s work. Restrictive laws can hinder women’s ability to access institutions, own or use property, build credit, or get a job. In 15 countries, women still require their husbands’ consent to work.

To address these inequalities, the report recommends governments target actions that cover a woman’s life cycle—saying interventions that focus only on women of productive age start too late and end too early.

“The commitment must begin with fostering girls’ and boys’ skills and aspirations equally from their early years, so it stays with them long enough that they and future generations enjoy a more equitable and prosperous world,” Klugman said.

 Gender at Work: 10 Global Facts

• Women’s labor force participation has stagnated, in fact decreasing from 57 percent in 1990 to 55 percent in 2012.

• Women on average earn between 10 and 30 percent less than working men.

• Women are only half as likely as men to have full-time wage jobs for an employer.

• In only five of the 114 countries for which data are available have women reached or surpassed gender parity with men in such occupations as legislators, senior officials, and managers; namely, Colombia, Fiji, Jamaica, Lesotho, and the Philippines.

• Women spend at least twice as much time as men on unpaid domestic work such as caring and housework.

• A total of 128 countries have at least one sex-based legal differentiation, meaning women and men cannot function in the world of work in the same way; in 54 countries, women face five or more legal differences.

• Across developing countries, there is a nine percentage point gap between women and men in having an account at a formal financial institution.

• More than one in three women has experienced either physical or sexual violence by a partner or non-partner sexual violence.

• In 2010-12, 42 countries reported gender gaps in secondary school enrollment rates exceeding 10 percent.

• One in three girls in developing countries is married before reaching her 18th birthday.

From: http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/gender/publication/gender-at-work-companion-report-to-world-development-report-2013-jobs

Le travail des femmes n’est toujours pas légitime en France / Women’s work not always legitimate in France

Depuis la loi qui leur a permis de travailler sans le consentement de leur mari, elles continuent de se heurter à des obstacles qui empêchent toute reconnaissance de leur travail.

 (Ale Ventura/AltoPress/MaxPPP) (Ale Ventura/AltoPress/MaxPPP)

Moins visible, moins reconnu et moins valorisé que celui des hommes, le travail des femmes n’a toujours pas acquis sa pleine légitimité en France près de 50 ans après l’octroi aux femmes du droit à exercer librement une activité, dit une étude du Conseil économique social et environnemental (CESE) publiée mardi 25 février.

Depuis la loi de 1965 qui leur a permis de travailler sans le consentement de leur mari, leur situation a certes évolué mais elles continuent de se heurter à des obstacles qui empêchent toute reconnaissance de leur travail, relève le CESE.

Si l’on s’en tient aux chiffres, la tendance relevée au cours des dernières décennies est positive: en 2011, 14,8 millions d’hommes et 13,5 millions de femmes sont recensés comme actifs, contre 13,2 millions d’hommes et 6,6 millions de femmes au début des années 1960.

Mais cette évolution ne doit pas pour autant masquer le chemin que les mentalités doivent encore parcourir en France pour que le travail des femmes soit reconnu à égalité avec celui des hommes, souligne le rapporteur de l’étude, Hélène Fauvel.

Plus de CDD

Dans une étude de l’Insee de 2011, une personne sur quatre pensait qu’en période de crise, les hommes devraient être prioritaires pour trouver un emploi, une proportion toutefois moins importante chez les 20-24 ans que chez les 75-79 ans.

L’accès à l’emploi reste plus difficile pour les jeunes femmes faiblement qualifiées que pour leurs homologues masculins et les femmes sont plus souvent recrutées en CDD.

“Le droit à l’autonomie économique des femmes grâce à leur travail n’est pas encore pleinement reconnu et la notion de salaire d’appoint reste encore très présente”, écrit Hélène Fauvel.

“Les écarts de salaire qui ne se réduisent plus depuis les années 1990 restent importants et concernent tous les secteurs et toutes les catégories socioprofessionnelles, contribuent à renforcer l’idée d’une moindre légitimité du travail des femmes”, ajoute-t-elle.

Selon les données 2009 de la DARES, la direction de l’animation de la recherche, des études et des statistiques, la rémunération annuelle des femmes est en moyenne inférieure de 27 % à celle des hommes.

Difficile conciliation vie pro/vie perso

Concernant l’éloignement des femmes du marché du travail, le CESE distingue trois grandes catégories de raisons invoquées par les mères pour expliquer leur retrait du marché du travail.

En premier lieu figure la conciliation entre vie familiale et vie professionnelle, “une expression qui ne s’applique qu’exclusivement aux femmes dans l’esprit des employeurs comme aux yeux de l’opinion publique”, note le CESE.

Les femmes sont plus nombreuses que les hommes à s’arrêter de travailler pour prendre un congé parental, à réduire leur temps de travail ou à cesser toute activité lorsque la conciliation devient trop compliquée.

Or, selon une étude de la Caisse nationale des allocations familiales (Cnaf), 40% des mères qui ont arrêté de travailler après une naissance auraient préféré poursuivre leur activité.

Autres obstacles invoqués, les contraintes pratiques et financières liées aux modes de garde, soit indisponibles, soit trop chers, et les conditions de travail parmi lesquelles les horaires ont un poids déterminant.

Face à ces difficultés, “l’implication des employeurs reste encore timide, essentiellement sous forme d’aides financières et beaucoup moins en terme de souplesse horaire pourtant souhaitée”, constate le CESE.

Diversifier les modes d’accueil des enfants

La délégation aux droits des femmes et à l’égalité du CESE préconise donc de développer et de diversifier les modes d’accueil des enfants, “condition sine qua non pour permettre aux femmes de travailler en élevant leurs enfants.”

Elle appelle également les pouvoirs publics à encourager la gestion partagée des responsabilités familiales entre les deux parents, en incitant les pères à s’impliquer davantage.

La délégation prône la mise en place d’une préparation du retour à l’emploi des femmes en congé parental via une offre de formation et un accompagnement individualisé.

L’enjeu est de taille, souligne Hélène Fauvel. “Oeuvrer pour une meilleure insertion professionnelle des femmes, c’est tout à la fois conforter leur statut social et garantir leur autonomie financière et familiale”.

(Avec Reuters)

From: http://www.challenges.fr/economie/20140225.CHA0812/le-travail-des-femmes-n-est-toujours-pas-legitime-en-france.html


Unpaid care: the missing women’s rights issue

Kate Donald 20 January 2014

Unsupported and unshared care work perpetuates women’s poverty, political marginalization and social subordination. The distribution of care is not natural or inevitable, but rather socially constructed and in our power to change, says Kate Donald

“Women’s rights are human rights”, declared Hillary Clinton in Beijing nearly 20 years ago. This simple yet revolutionary statement has evolved into a mantra of the international human rights movement. However, one of the major obstacles to women enjoying their rights equally with men has been rarely recognised or even spoken of by human rights advocates. Something that happens every day, in every household, village and city around the world: the cooking, cleaning, and caring that families, communities and societies depend upon and simultaneously take for granted.

All of us receive care at some point in our lives. Almost all of us will also give care, to children, to elderly parents, to partners. To speak of ‘care’ as a human rights issue risks dissonance. Isn’t care a good thing? Don’t we need more of it, not less? Indeed: it is not unpaid care per se that threatens human rights  – being a foundational, unavoidable and very human activity that underpins all societies and cultures– but rather, the way it is distributed, and the lack of recognition and support it receives.

Of course, from The Feminine Mystique to the Wages for Housework Campaign to The Second Shift, feminists have pilloried the discriminatory distribution of unpaid care. In general however, human rights and women’s rights advocates have been slow to adopt it as a cause. Granted, in a field like women’s rights there are a myriad of heart-rending issues fighting for attention; but surely something that so fundamentally shapes women’s time, lives and opportunities should by all reasonable measures be a rallying point?

One obstacle is that care has unfairly been perceived as an elite concern. Many of the public debates around care focus on the struggles of privileged professional women – the Sheryl Sandbergs of this world – to juggle motherhood and work. Poor women supposedly have more serious, life-or-death concerns. On the contrary: unpaid care work is intimately bound up with survival, with eking out an existence on subsistence crops and little income. It is the work of putting food on the table, insisting your children attend school so the next generation can have hopes of life away from the breadline, keeping everyone in the household clean and healthy so wages are not lost and unaffordable health costs are not incurred.

In all countries, women provide the vast majority of unpaid care – and when unpaid care is taken into account, women work longer hours overall than men. It is also absolutely clear that the struggle is intensified for women living in poverty, because they can’t afford to pay for outside help or time-saving technologies (be it a washing machine or grain-grinder), and because they are more likely to live in areas where public services are inadequate or absent. Rural women in many developing countries have the added burden of collecting water and fuel for domestic use – often walking hours each day to do so. In sub-Saharan Africa women and girls spend 40 billion hours each year collecting water – equivalent to a year’s labour by the entire French workforce.

The amount of time women spend on unpaid care is fundamental to defining their time, energy, finances and social and political capital. It is also definitively a human rights issue. Under international human rights law, including the International Covenants and the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, if women are unable to enjoy a right to the same extent as men, this is automatically a human rights violation that requires remedy. States are explicitly required to take concrete measures to ensure that women are able to enjoy their rights equally, and to tackle any obstacles to them doing so. The gendered distribution of unpaid care work is unquestionably a major obstacle in this regard, preventing the equal enjoyment by women of a whole range of human rights.

Most obviously, their rights to work and to equal rights at work are threatened. Even privileged women have to contend with the gender pay gap, lack of family leave rights, and maternity discrimination. For many poorer women with intensive care responsibilities, although they would dearly love the income, paid work is an impossibility. Others are forced to accept whatever badly paid flexible work they can find – often without labour rights or social security – and still perform the same ‘second shift’ when they get home, sacrificing their health and leisure.

Girls’ right to education is also put in jeopardy, whether they are withdrawn from school entirely or simply have less time and energy to devote to schoolwork or extra-curricular activities than boys due to their domestic duties. This has devastating knock-on consequences for their future opportunities and income. Compounding this, later in life women have less time for training or adult education opportunities because of their heavy domestic workload.

Women are also less able to participate actively in politics and public life – another fundamental right – because of their unfair share of unpaid care. Practical considerations such as time and lack of childcare provision prevent many women from participating in public forums ranging from national parliaments to community groups. Hence, many decisions crucial to their lives and livelihoods are taken without them in the room.

Undoubtedly, moving towards a fairer distribution of unpaid care will require profound socio-cultural change. However, governments have a crucial role to play in moving towards the more equal sharing of care, for example through education and awareness-raising campaigns, but also in a more immediate sense by more effectively supporting and providing care. Ensuring quality, accessible public services and care services, especially in poorer areas, can help to liberate women from unsustainably large burdens of care provision, as can improving infrastructure (piped water, decent roads) and subsidizing affordable time-saving technology such as fuel-efficient stoves.

Unfortunately, there are striking examples of governments around the world doing exactly the opposite. As Fawcett Society and the Women’s Budget Group have shown, austerity measures in the UK are having a disproportionate impact on women; but the vandalism of austerity is not confined to Britain or even Europe. Recent research has shown that developing countries (many of them barely recovered from the similarly destructive effects of structural adjustment) are slashing public budgets with as much – or more – alacrity as their European counterparts. It goes without saying that their populations can even less afford to lose the services and benefits being cut.

Wherever public services are cut, legislators and policy-makers are acting on the implicit assumption that women will take up the slack. In countries afflicted by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, ‘home-based care’ for people suffering from AIDS has been celebrated as a policy innovation. Really, it represents only an intensive scaling up of the norm – handing the burden back to poor women, away from overwhelmed and under-resourced health services. Women and girls provide 70-90% of HIV/AIDS care, while the virus also affects women in greater numbers than men.  The finances, equipment, drugs and training that these caregivers need to perform their work without jeopardizing their own health and livelihoods remain largely unrealized. 80 per cent of family caregivers in South Africa have reported reduced income levels.

The evidence is clear that countries with greater gender equality in employment and education report higher rates of human development and economic growth. Thus, for reasons from principled to pragmatic, we should be devoting every possible effort to correcting the obscenely skewed distribution of unpaid care. Currently, ‘women’s empowerment’ is one of the most oft-cited priorities in the halls of the UN and development agencies.  However, without a real recognition of unpaid care as a fundamental factor limiting women’s rights and life chances, empowerment is a mirage: akin to promising to end violence against women while ignoring domestic violence. Is a women empowered if she takes a low-paid job in a garment factory with no social security, only to start her second shift of domestic ‘duties’ as soon as she gets home, pausing only for a few hours’ sleep? To truly empower woman would mean respecting care work as valuable and productive, giving it status, encouraging men to do it, and supporting it with resources and services. It would mean freeing women’s time and potential, enabling them and supporting them to go out to work if they are able, ensuring they are given ample opportunity for training and advancement, and access to childcare.

Hopefully, 2014 will be the year when unpaid care work is recognised as a core women’s rights issue. There will be ample opportunities to make the connection between care, poverty, gender inequality and denial of women’s rights – for example at the Commission on the Status of Women and in discussions around the global development agenda to succeed the Millennium Development Goals in 2015. Some organizations that work on poverty and development – most notably ActionAid, Oxfam, and the Institute for Development Studies – which is using animation as part of this work –  are now taking this issue seriously. Hopefully human rights organizations will follow suit, including unpaid care work in their women’s rights analyses and priorities, alongside issues such as violence against women, reproductive rights and employment. Hopefully, we will also start to see human rights jurisprudence further recognising the impacts of inadequate State support for unpaid care, and making recommendations for its redistribution.

Care is non-negotiable and fundamental. It has to be done. It can be a huge source of fulfillment and joy; but we also have to acknowledge that it can also entail heavy costs, especially for women living in poverty. The way it is currently distributed between women and men is unjust and unsustainable. In all countries, unsupported and unshared care work perpetuates women’s poverty, political marginalization and social subordination. We cannot hope to achieve gender equality without fully facing up to this injustice. The distribution of care is not natural or inevitable, but rather socially constructed and in our power to change.

From: http://www.opendemocracy.net/5050/kate-donald/unpaid-care-missing-women%E2%80%99s-rights-issue?utm_source=50.50+list&utm_campaign=509bb37639-RSS_5050_EMAIL_CAMPAIGN&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_89d6c8b9eb-509bb37639-407822177

Quel salaire pour les mères au foyer ? How Much is Your Mom Worth?

Quel salaire pour les mères au foyer ?

ELLE.frELLE.fr – 

Si mère au foyer était une qualification reconnue, les Américaines gagneraient très bien leur vie. Le site américain ” Salary ” a estimé, après avoir effectué un sondage auprès de 6 000 mères en 2013, que les tàches qu’elles accomplissent devraient leur rapporter 6 917 euros par mois. Soit un salaire non négligeable de 83 006 E par an. Selon ” Salary “, une mère au foyer américaine travaille en effet environ 94 heures chaque semaine et fait appel à une multitude de compétences : taxi, femme de ménage, psychologue, cuisinière, ou encore professeure. Plus généralement, le site permet à chaque femme de calculer son salaire virtuel, en indiquant combien d’enfants elle a, si elle a un travail, où elle vit, et combien de temps elle consacre à chaque tàche.Les femmes seraient mieux payées que les hommesSi le travail domestique était reconnu, les hommes auraient pour la première fois un salaire inférieur à celui des femmes. Les pères ne passent en effet que 55,7 heures par semaine à s’occuper des tàches ménagères, selon ” Salary “. ” Cette étude est faite simplement pour s’amuser et n’est en aucun cas purement scientifique “, a toutefois précisé le site dans son article. Il n’empêche : une fois de plus, les inégalités femmes/hommes restent frappantes.

From: http://fr.pourelles.yahoo.com/salaire-m%C3%A8res-au-foyer-144257731.html

Salary.com’s 13th Annual Mom Salary Survey

How Much is Your Mom Worth?

Moms. We love them and for good reason. After all, they brought us into the world, raised us, taught us right from wrong and supported us in just about everything we’ve ever done. Biological? Adopted? It doesn’t matter. We owe our mothers everything. And even though they’re too selfless to collect, Salary.com is giving you the chance to hand your mom a check on Mother’s Day by going to our Mom Salary Wizard and finding out what your mom would be paid if moms were – you know – actually compensated.

So that’s why, for the 13th consecutive year, Salary.com surveyed more than 6,000 moms to find out what their top 10 most time-consuming jobs are and how much time per week they spend on each. Then we applied our extensive salary data to each job, factored in the number of hours worked including overtime, crunched all the numbers and POOF – we get an estimate of what mothers would make if they were paid an annual salary.


For more details go to:


Egalité professionnelle: l’homme est-il l’avenir de la femme?

Par , publié le 09/01/2014 à  07:43

Comment faire progresser la parité en entreprise? En rendant les hommes plus heureux! C’est l’approche originale du mouvement Happy Men, lancé en 2013 par Antoine de Gabrielli, chef d’entreprise. Décryptage, alors que le Premier ministre présentait lundi 6 janvier la feuille de route 2014 du gouvernement en matière d’égalité hommes-femmes. 

Egalité professionnelle: l'homme est-il l'avenir de la femme?

 De plus en plus d’hommes aspirent à mieux équilibrer vie professionnelle et vie personnelle.

 Reuters/Michaela Rehle

“On ne fait pas des enfants pour ne jamais les voir”. Ainsi parle Alexis, 33 ans, ingénieur en informatique et père de 3 enfants de 6 ans, 4 ans, et 8 mois. Depuis qu’ils sont parents, Alexis et sa femme se sont toujours organisés pour que l’un d’eux soit présent le soir pour récupérer la fratrie à la crèche ou à l’école, donner les bains, préparer le dîner… “Ma femme a des horaires plus contraints que les miens explique l’informaticien. Je privilégie donc les horaires décalés pour partir à 17h30 et m’occuper des enfants”. Un partage des tâches qu’il faut pouvoir assumer face à sa hiérarchie, et aux collègues: “On me regarde parfois curieusement, mais je n’ai aucun problème avec ça, affirme Alexis. Je suis convaincu qu’être un père présent n’empêche pas d’être un bon professionnel”.  

Libérer la parole masculine

Comme Alexis, ils seraient de plus en plus nombreux ces hommes qui aspirent à mieux équilibrer vie professionnelle et personnelle. C’est pour eux qu’Antoine de Gabrielli, chef d’entreprise, fondateur de l’association Mercredi c’est Papa, a lancé en juin dernier Happy Men. Le concept? Former des référents masculins aux principes de l’égalité en entreprise, pour qu’ensuite ils “évangélisent” leurs collaborateurs et leurs collègues, et luttent contre les stéréotypes qui pèsent sur les hommes comme sur les femmes. “Il faut faire comprendre aux responsables d’entreprise que l’égalité professionnelle n’est pas un sujet de “bonne femme” martèle Antoine de Gabrielli, contacté par L’Express. C’est une question de management et d’organisation du travail qui concerne tout le monde, car pour être performante une entreprise ne doit négliger aucun talent, féminin ou masculin. Et pour faire passer ce message, rien de mieux que de commencer par libérer la parole, lors de rencontres entre hommes”. Depuis le lancement de Happy Men, 5 entreprises (Orange, BNP Paribas, Cofely GDF Suez, Accenture, Crédit Agricole) ont décidé d’expérimenter ce dispositif, et 25 référents ont été formés par Antoine de Gabrielli.  

Arnaud Morlaës est l’un de ces “référents Happy Men”. Ce cadre supérieur chez BNP Paribas raconte qu’il a eu deux vies: “D’abord une vie de célibataire, hyperactif, qui travaillait en salle des marchés, une vie où tout allait très vite. Et depuis 6 ans une vie de père de famille, avec une femme qui occupe un poste à responsabilités, au ministère des Affaires européennes”. Quand Arnaud a rencontré celle qui allait devenir sa femme, elle avait déjà deux enfants – rejoints en 2012 par la petite dernière, Clémence. Du jour au lendemain, à 40 ans passé, Arnaud s’est trouvé plongé dans les contraintes parentales : les enfants malades, l’intendance, le casse-tête des gardes quand les deux parents travaillent… Fort de cette expérience, il a tout de suite adhéré au principe de Happy Men: “Grâce à ma position dans l’entreprise, j’ai plus de pouvoir qu’un jeune qui débute. Quand j’annonce que je pars plus tôt pour aller chercher ma fille à la crèche, personne n’ose rien me dire. C’est plus difficile pour un salarié plus jeune, qui, au pire, peut passer pour un salarié peu motivé. Pour faire évoluer les stéréotypes, il faut donc que l’exemple vienne d’en haut. J’y travaille!”.  

Lutter contre les préjugés qui touchent les hommes comme les femmes

C’est Elisabeth Karako, directrice de la diversité du groupe BNP Paribas, qui a proposé à Arnaud et à quatre autres collaborateurs de la banque de rejoindre le club des Happy Men, fin 2013: “Quand leur enfant est malade, la plupart des hommes n’osent pas demander à partir pour s’en occuper, tellement ils ont intégré l’idée que “ça ne se fait pas”. C’est sur ces préjugés qu’il faut travailler, pour permettre aux salariés de rééquilibrer leurs temps de vie, et aux salariées de prendre plus de responsabilités dans l’entreprise”. Dans les prochains mois, ces cinq croisés d’un nouveau genre vont organiser des groupes de paroles avec leurs collègues masculins. Ensuite Elisabeth Karako souhaite que le club de femmes de BNP Paribas, Mixcity, et les Happy Men, se rencontrent, “pour formuler ensemble des solutions concrètes à la conciliation vie perso/vie familiale – avec l’appui de la direction des ressources humaines, évidemment”.  

Aider les hommes à s’épanouir dans leur vie personnelle pour aider les femmes à dépasser le fameux plafond de verre – l’intention est louable et sans doute bénéfique pour l’image de l’entreprise. Mais est-elle efficace? “Oui!” affirme Brigitte Grésy, secrétaire générale du conseil supérieur de l’égalité professionnelle: “Une opération comme Happy Men a déjà le mérite de démonter certains stéréotypes, en valorisant des hommes qui s’impliquent avec bonheur dans la vie familiale. Elle est donc intéressante, mais à condition que cela n’entraîne pas une reculade de la mobilisation des femmes: dans ce contexte de crise, je préfère que les entreprises paient pour lutter contre les inégalités des femmes plutôt que pour des groupes de parole d’hommes ! En outre il ne faut pas arrêter de pointer une réalité du combat pour l’égalité femmes/hommes : il ne pourra être mené à bien sans aborder les questions de partage des responsabilités familiales, et de co-parentalité”.
La co-parentalité, un concept qui semble séduire le nouveau vice-chancelier allemand Sigmar Gabriel. Dans les colonnes du quotidien Bild, samedi dernier, le président du SPD affirme que sa récente nomination au ministère de l’économie et de l’énergie ne l’empêchera pas de continuer à prendre ses mercredis après-midi. Pour plancher sur la transition energétique ? Non, pour passer du temps avec sa petite dernière, Marie, bientôt 2 ans. Les temps changent. 

En savoir plus sur http://www.lexpress.fr/actualite/societe/egalite-professionnelle-l-homme-est-il-l-avenir-de-la-femme_1312530.html#epe2HdxT5zOIEfki.99

Women entrepreneurs need further support in Montenegro

The Montenegrin Employers Federation (MEF) published a report entitled Assessment of the environment for women entrepreneurship in Montenegro with the financial and technical assistance of the ILO. ILO Online asked Ms Zvezdana Oluic, Head of PR and Marketing Sector about the results of the survey.

Press release | 12 November 2013

Women entrepreneurs need further support in Montenegro

What was to objective to do a research on women’s entrepreneurship in Montenegro?

The aim of this report was to review the main features of the institutional, legislative and educational system, business climate, barriers as well as possibilities for women’s entrepreneurship development in Montenegro. It also aimed to develop recommendations for accelerating procedures, introducing incentives and effective processes in establishing an economic environment which stimulates future development and improvement of female entrepreneurship, especially in small and medium enterprises in Montenegro.

What kind of the methodology did you use in this assessment?

The research followed the methodology recommended by an AfDB/ILO Integrated Framework Assessment Guide: Assessing the Enabling Environment for Women in Growth Enterprises (GOWEs).

It assessed the following ten key areas using desk research of available data and official documents, in-depth interviews with decision-makers and focus groups:

  • Management and coordination policy;
  • Regulatory and legal issues;
  • Promotion of women entrepreneurship;
  • Access to education and training;
  • Access to credits and financial services;
  • Access to services for business development and information;
  • Associations and networks of women entrepreneurs;
  • Access to business premises;
  • Access to markets;
  • Research on women entrepreneurship.

What is the situation of women in the labour market of Montenegro?

The position of women in the labour market is considerably worse than that of men, especially with regard to possibility for advancing in business hierarchy and accessibility of managing positions.

According a UNDP research women in Montenegro face different barriers, which translate into horizontal and vertical gender based segregation of professions. These barriers include stereotypes in choosing education and professions, traditional roles of women, prejudices and also lower professional aspirations of women compared to men.

Instead of investing in career development, women are traditionally directed to less paid jobs in lower positions which leave enough time for family responsibilities. Therefore, there is a lack of women in Montenegro in managing positions (in private and public sector as well as in politics) which would generate visibility, better income and higher social status for them. The feminization of certain professions is an issue as well, in addition to the existence of so-called “glass ceiling” and the gender wage gap which shows that women’s income is 86 per cent of that of men’s for work of equal value.

Are there many women entrepreneurs in the country? Which sectors do they prefer?

According to an analysis published by Montenegro Statistical Office (MONSTAT) in March 2012, only 9.6 per cent (2 025 in 2011) of business entities are owned by women, while 90.4 per cent (19 102) of businesses are in men’s ownership.

This data places Montenegro behind the EU and neighbouring countries. Also, other private sector surveys indicate that MONSTAT’s data do not reflect the real situation, but rather include several women who are only formally business owners but management functions and entrepreneurial activities are performed by their male relatives (spouse, brother, son).

Regarding the size of business, women were the most common in small enterprises, while only one woman was found in the class of large companies.

The share of active business entities owned by women is the highest in the area of social protection (38.5 per cent), employment (22.2 per cent), advertisement and market research (21.5 per cent) cleaning of environment and waste management (33.3 per cent). Women’s share is also considerable in health care (20.8 per cent), social protection with accommodation (20 per cent), supporting activities in financial services and insurance (22 per cent), and other personal service activities (16.3 per cent). On the other hand, active business entities connected to forestry, fishing, mining and quarrying, production of leather, pharmaceutical products, motor vehicles and other transport means, as well as scientific research and development, are completely owned by men (100 per cent).

What is the rate of women among top managers in big companies?

Results of a research conducted by Montenegrin Employers’ Federation in 2012 show that women’s participation at the top management level is only 42 per cent and they are the most represented at the middle management level (54 per cent). This research also indicates that 74.5 per cent of companies implement certain initiatives with the aim to promote gender equality in employment, retention, promotion and professional training.

Is it easy to start a new business or run a successful business in Montenegro?

The World Bank survey “Doing Business 2014” is carried out in 189 countries, including Montenegro. The survey indicator “Ease of Doing Business” ranks economies from 1 to 189, where a high ranking reflects a regulatory environment that is conducive for business operations. The data shows that Montenegro has improved in time, moving from 50 in 2013 to 44 in 2014. The indicator “Starting a Business” records the officially required procedures (number, time, cost and paid-in minimum capital) to start and operate an enterprise and ranks countries accordingly. Montenegro’s rank in this regard worsened from 2013 moving from 57 to 69 for the 2014.

Is it easy for women to start new business compared to men? Do they face any discrimination?

Conditions for entrepreneurship development are worse for women than for men due to, among other things, deeply rooted patriarchal attitudes in the Montenegrin society. Gender inequality is manifested in the lack of women’s political participation, economic inequality, unequal share of the family duties, differences in property ownership that put women in a very difficult position to start their own business.

For a large number of women, entrepreneurship is not the primary goal in life – they see it as a way to contribute to their family income. Hence, women entrepreneurship in Montenegro is now in the early stages and it can be called “entrepreneurship out of necessity” which is characterized by the need to find alternative employment.

Does the society support women to run a business on their own?

The formal requirements are created, but the practice shows that development of women’s entrepreneurship still requires full institutional support and appropriate incentives. In our society, women are not sufficiently recognized as equal partners in the economic arena, which leaves them in a worse position when starting and running their own business.

In traditional economies such as Montenegro, the challenges of women’s entrepreneurship development can be double. The initial challenge is to legally define and strengthen the basis of enterprise in the formal economy, so women could strengthen and expand their business. Another challenge is to promote entrepreneurship and business opportunities with high growth potential among educated and qualified women, so that their businesses are strong from the very beginning and have a potential for growth and job creation. In order to solve these challenges successfully, it is necessary to provide women with access to a number of key financial and non-financial resources, as well as a business environment that excludes gender-based institutional, cultural, regulatory and legal barriers which would limit their business activities.

Does the Montenegrin legislation provide equal opportunities for women and men?

Montenegro has established a legal and institutional framework and adopted policies and strategic documents that support gender equality, promotion of women’s rights and economic empowerment of women.

The structure of Montenegro is defined by the Constitution of Montenegro adopted 2007 as the highest legal act. The Constitution introduced the principle of gender equality through two articles. Article 18 guarantees the equality between men and women and obliges to develop policies on equal opportunities, while Article 8 prohibits any direct or indirect discrimination on any grounds. These provisions of the Constitution are further defined in detail in the Law on Gender Equality and The Law on Anti-Discrimination.

In addition, Montenegro has established institutional mechanisms at all levels (national, regional and local) in order to support legal and policy framework for promoting gender equality. Separate bodies have been established responsible for improving the economic status of women and women entrepreneurship development. The institutional mechanisms for supporting gender equality in Montenegro are:

  • Department for Gender Equality – Ministry for Human and Minority Rights
  • Committee for Gender Equality – Parliament of Montenegro

Do women have the same access to credits and other financial services as men?

The lack of access to finance is the main barrier for women and men entrepreneurs for starting business. However, Montenegrin women less often use commercial loans to start business than men. The main reason is that only 6 per cent of women are owners of a property which can be used as collateral to get a business bank loan.

According to a MEF research conducted among men and women entrepreneurs, commercial loans are more accessible to men, while women largely establish companies using a variety of state-supported programs aimed at entrepreneurship development. This suggests that commercial credits to start business are still less available for women.

A UNDP research on potential female entrepreneurs in Montenegro (published in 2012) also points out that the access to finance is one of the biggest barriers for starting business. 42 per cent of respondents stated that concerns about funding were the first and the most important reason behind the decision not to enter into business, while 14 per cent of women indicated family responsibilities preventing them to start business.

What kind of help would be the most useful for women to be successful in business life?

The report of Montenegrin Employers Federation gives a total 82 recommendations, grouped by ten key areas. The most important ones are listed below:

  • Support entrepreneurship as well as small and medium enterprises by gender empowerment measures in the private sector at local and national level;
  • Establish closer inter-agency cooperation at government level, create inter-agency teams for implementing measures for women’s entrepreneurship development and introduce regular evaluations of these measures;
  • Eliminate business barriers and create an environment that is favourable and conducive for women entrepreneurship development – particularly at local level;
  • Introduce tax incentives for self-employed women and women entrepreneurs, as well as government start-up subsidies available not only for unemployed but also for employed women;
  • Integrate entrepreneurship education into national curricula at primary, secondary and tertiary education and encourage entrepreneurial learning in the informal education system;
  • Create favourable bank credit lines for women entrepreneurs, support the establishment of guarantee funds for women entrepreneurs and provide funding for women start-ups through provision of grants;
  • Establish women business incubator(s), and introduce a quota system for women entrepreneurs within existing (and new) business incubators;
  • Establish an annual prize for the most successful women entrepreneur(s), organize regular women entrepreneurship fairs and intensify the media promotion of successful business women;
  • Improve child care facilities – especially at local level (extended kindergarten hours, outside school hours care );
  • Include the gender perspective in all research projects, and require the collection of statistical data relevant to women’s entrepreneurship development.

From: http://www.ilo.org/budapest/information-resources/press-releases/WCMS_229362/lang–en/index.htm

Many Societies Gradually Moving to Dismantle Gender Discrimination, Yet More Can Be Done, Says World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim


September 24, 2013

Out of 143 economies surveyed at least 90 percent had one or more legal differences that hinder women’s ability to work and open businesses, according to the report Women, Business and the Law 2014, issued jointly by the World Bank Group and the International Finance Corporation (IFC.)


LONDON, September 24, 2013 —A new World Bank and IFC report finds legal and regulatory barriers to women’s economic inclusion have decreased over the past 50 years globally, but many laws still hinder women’s participation in the economy. Laws restricting women’s economic activity are currently most prevalent in the Middle East and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.

The third in a series, Women, Business and the Law 2014: Removing Restrictions to Enhance Gender Equality monitors regulations affecting women entrepreneurs and employees in 143 economies. This edition highlights reforms carried out over the past two years, examines the evolution of women’s property rights and legal decision making ability since 1960 and expands coverage to examine legal protections addressing violence against women.

“The ideal of equality before the law and equality of economic opportunity isn’t just wise social policy: It’s smart economic policy,” said World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim. “When women and men participate in economic life on an equal footing, they can contribute their energies to building a more cohesive society and a more resilient economy. The surest way to help enrich the lives of families, communities and economies is to allow every individual to live up to her or his fullest creative potential.”

“Our latest edition of Women, Business and the Law shows that many societies have made progress, gradually moving to dismantle ingrained forms of discrimination against women,” said Kim. “Yet a great deal remains to be done.”

This report finds 44 economies have made 48 legal changes, thus increasing women’s economic opportunities over the past two years. Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, the Philippines and the Slovak Republic had the most reforms. Among the reforms, husbands can no longer unilaterally stop their wives from working in Côte d’Ivoire and Mali, the Philippines has lifted restrictions on night work for women, and the Slovak Republic increased the percentage of wages paid during maternity leave.

The report finds economies in Eastern Europe and Central Asia have the most extensive lists of jobs women cannot do. For example, in the Russian Federation women cannot drive trucks in the agricultural sector, in Belarus they cannot be carpenters and in Kazakhstan they cannot be welders. These restrictions may have arisen from a desire to protect women, but can limit their employment options. The report shows economies with the most job restrictions on women have lower female participation in the formal labor force.

“Progress on gender equality under the law is accelerating,” said Augusto Lopez-Claros, Director, Global Indicators and Analysis, World Bank Group. “Our data shows that over the past 50 years countries everywhere have started removing long-standing restrictions on women’s ability to participate more fully in the economy. Although the progress has been uneven across the world, there is widespread recognition that the economic empowerment of women is crucial for competitiveness and prosperity.”

Between 1960 and 2010, more than half the restrictions on women’s property rights and ability to conduct legal transactions were removed in the 100 economies examined. Restrictions in three regions – Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and East Asia and the Pacific – were cut in half. While some restrictions were removed in South Asia and in the Middle East and North Africa, these two regions reformed the least.

Another major innovation in the report is new data on the existence and scope of laws on two areas of violence against women: sexual harassment and domestic violence. Covering 100 economies, the data show that prohibitions against sexual harassment in the workplace are widespread – 78 economies have legislation and over half of these criminalize the behavior. Legislation on domestic violence is also widespread –76 economies have laws prohibiting domestic violence. The region with the fewest laws on domestic violence is the Middle East and North Africa.

The report shows lower gender legal parity is associated with fewer women participating in firm ownership, while policies encouraging women to join and remain in the labor force are associated with greater income equality. Even though the report offers signs of improvement for women’s economic opportunities globally, it shows economies can do more to ensure women’s participation in economic life.

About the Women, Business and the Law Report series:

Women, Business and the Law measures how laws, regulations and institutions differentiate between women and men in ways that may affect women’s incentives or capacity to work or to set up and run a business. It analyzes legal differences on the basis of gender in 143 economies, covering six areas: gaining access to institutions, using property, getting a job, providing incentives to work, building credit, and going to court. The project provides a clear picture of gender gaps based on legal differences in each economy, but it does not capture the full extent of the gender gap, nor does it indicate the relative importance of each aspect covered. This year’s report was published by Bloomsbury Publishing.

About the World Bank Group

The World Bank Group is one of the world’s largest sources of funding and development expertise for developing countries. It comprises five closely associated institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA), which together form the World Bank; the International Finance Corporation (IFC); the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA); and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). Each institution plays a distinct role in pursuing the World Bank Group’s mission to fight poverty and improve living standards for people in the developing world. For more information, please visit http://www.worldbank.org, http://www.miga.org, and http://www.ifc.org.

From: http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2013/09/24/societies-dismantle-gender-discrimination-world-bank-group-president-jim-yong-kim



De nombreux pays évoluent progressivement vers l’éradication des discriminations fondées sur le sexe, mais il est possible de faire mieux, déclare Jim Yong Kim, président du Groupe Banque mondiale

A lire sur: http://www.banquemondiale.org/fr/news/press-release/2013/09/24/societies-dismantle-gender-discrimination-world-bank-group-president-jim-yong-kim

In 15 countries, women cannot work without their husband’s permission

Dans quinze pays, les femmes ne peuvent travailler sans l’accord de leur mari

Le Monde.fr avec AFP

En iran, la législation donne le droit aux hommes de s'opposer à ce que leurs femmes travaillent.

Dans pas moins de quinze pays, les femmes ne peuvent pas travailler sans avoir l’autorisation de leur mari, selon un rapport de la Banque mondiale, paru mardi 24 septembre. “De nombreuses sociétés ont accompli des progrès, s’engageant petit à petit à supprimer les formes tenaces de discrimination contre les femmes, mais il reste encore beaucoup à faire”, souligne le président de la Banque mondiale, Jim Yong-kim, en préambule du rapport sur les “Femmes, les affaires et le droit”.

Parmi les 143 pays couverts par ce rapport, 15 – dont l’Iran, la Syrie, la Bolivie ou le Gabon – donnent le droit aux hommes de “s’opposer” à ce que leur femme travaille, et à les “empêcher d’accepter un emploi”. En Guinée, par exemple, elles doivent saisir les tribunaux pour faire annuler la décision de leur mari de s’opposer, “au nom des intérêts de la famille” à ce qu’elles entrent dans la vie active. A noter qu’en Russie, 456 professions, telles que conducteur de camion agricole, aiguilleur de trains ou plombier, leur sont d’office interdites, indique la Banque mondiale.


Dans au moins 29 pays, tels que l’Arabie saoudite, le Honduras, le Sénégal, la loi fait par ailleurs systématiquement des hommes les “chefs de famille”, et leur confie ainsi le contrôle de “décisions cruciales” sur le choix du lieu de vie, l’obtention de documents officiels ou l’ouverture d’un compte bancaire.

La Banque mondiale rappelle que certains pays occidentaux ont eux aussi tardé à accorder l’égalité de droits entre sexes. L’Espagne a ainsi attendu 1981 pour permettre aux femmes de se pourvoir en justice sans l’assentiment de leur mari.

Ce rapport recense par ailleurs un certain nombre d’avancées mondiales. En deux ans, 48 changements de législation, répartis dans 44 pays, ont “accru” la parité hommes-femmes, notamment en Côte d’Ivoire où les femmes sont, depuis 2013, libres de travailler sans l’accord de leur mari.

Ces progrès sont parfois fragiles, souligne le rapport, qui pointe les récents “revirements législatifs” en Egypte où des règles constitutionnelles de non-discrimination sexuelle ont été supprimées avec l’arrivée au pouvoir des Frères musulmans, depuis écartés du pouvoir.

From : http://www.lemonde.fr/afrique/article/2013/09/24/quinze-pays-interdisent-aux-femmes-de-travailler-sans-l-accord-de-leur-mari_3483888_3212.html#xtor=AL-32280515