An ILO assessment of Syrian refugee employment in Lebanon finds that low wages, high unemployment and lack of labour market regulation pose serious challenges to livelihoods for both residents and refugees in host communities.
Female Syrian refugees are particularly vulnerable to unemployment, informal employment is expanding and action is needed regarding minimum wages, social protection and regulation of informal employment
BEIRUT (ILO News) – Almost a third of Syrian refugees in Lebanon’s labour market are unemployed, said the International Labour Organization in a study entitled “Assessment of the Impact of Syrian Refugees in Lebanon and their Employment Profile”.
The report says that most Syrian refugees working in Lebanon also suffer from low wages and harsh working conditions. It also points to refugees’ lack of skills and education.
“Both Syrian refugees and Lebanese residents are suffering from the effects of an unregulated labour market,” says Mary Kawar, Senior Employment Specialist at the ILO Regional Office for the Arab States (ROAS). “The large supply of low-wage Syrian workers causes further deregulation and expands informal employment resulting in downward pressures on wages and the deterioration of working conditions. In turn, this negatively affects Lebanese host communities and refugees who are both increasingly unable to live in dignity or maintain sufficient access to livelihoods.”
The ILO assessment found that Syrian workers in Lebanon earned substantially less than their Lebanese counterparts. The report consisted of face-to-face interviews as well as semi-structured questionnaires with some 2,000 individuals. Average monthly income for a Syrian refugee in Lebanon is almost 40 per cent less than the minimum wage of 675,000 Lebanese Pounds (US$448).
|The focus should be on creating decent work opportunities through actions that regulate informal labour.”
F. Hagemann, ILO ROAS
Female Syrian refugees were particularly vulnerable to unemployment. Over two thirds of women looking for work in Lebanon were unable to find a job. Only two out of 10 working refugees were female, earning about 40 per cent less on average than their male counterparts.
Informal work dominates Syrian refugee employment with nine out of 10 Syrian refugees in Lebanon employed without a formal contract. One out of two refugee workers in Lebanon also reported suffering from back and joint pain or severe fatigue as well as extreme cold or heat. Almost two-thirds of Syrian refugees reported exposure to dust and fumes in the workplace.
“This report reveals that the response to the Syrian refugee crisis in Lebanon needs to take on a holistic and comprehensive approach which addresses Lebanon’s pre-existing labour market challenges and balances the humanitarian support with the developmental needs of Lebanon’s host communities,” says Frank Hagemann, Deputy Regional Director of the ILO ROAS. “The focus should be on creating decent work opportunities through actions that regulate informal labour, protect minimum wages, promote safety at work, provide social protection and encourage sustainable enterprise development.”
Key figures from the report:
- 30 per cent: Unemployment rate of Syrian refugees active in Lebanon’s labour market.
- 68 per cent: Unemployment rate among Syrian refugee women active in Lebanon’s labour market.
- 88 per cent: Syrian refugees in Lebanon employed in either unskilled or semi-skilled jobs.
- 418,000 LBP (US$277): Average monthly income for a Syrian refugee worker, as opposed to Lebanon’s minimum wage of 675,000 LBP (US$448).
- 432,000 LBP (US$287): Average monthly income for a male Syrian refugee worker.
- 248,000 LBP (US$165): Average monthly income for a female Syrian refugee worker.
- 92 per cent: Syrian refugees in Lebanon working without a formal contract.
- 56 per cent: Syrian refugee workers in Lebanon employed on a seasonal, weekly or daily basis.
- 74 days: The average time a Syrian refugee worker requires to find employment.
إجازة الأمومة 70 يوماً … إنتصار نسوي للأم والطفل
منذ ثلاث سنوات ومشروع قانون تمديد إجازة الأمومة رهن بالتجاذبات السياسية والتحالفات، كما الجلسات التي نادراً ما كانت تعقد. وبعد صراع طويل من الهيئة الوطنية لشؤون المرأة اللبنانية، تم إقرار تمديد الإجازة الى 10 اسابيع، لتنصف بذلك المرأة بأبسط حقوقها كأم، حيث كان لبنان البلد الوحيد الذي يعطي فقط 40 يوماً إجازة امومة. وكان القانون قد سلك طريقه وبشكل طبيعي في اللجان المعنية، وأقرّ في لجان الصحة، المرأة والطفل، الإدارة والعدل منذ اقتراحه، إلا انه اخذ ثلاث سنوات ليتم إقراره من قبل المجلس النيابي. ولكن تبقى الهيئات الإقتصادية كما وزير العمل من الرافضين لهذا القانون، للخسارة الإقتصادية التي يمكن ان يتكبدها ارباب العمل خلال شهرين ونصف الشهر من الإجازة.
يعطي هذا القرار جزءاً من حقوق الأم، فالطفل في الاشهر الأولى من عمره بحاجة الى علاقة مع امه، ورغم ان 10 أسابيع ليست كافية وكانت الهيئة قد اقترحت ضرورة إعطاء 14 اسبوعاً، إلا انها توقعت الحصول فقط على 10 نظراً لحساسية الموضوع، ولإنتاجية المرأة ودورها الفعال في المجتمع
وفي حديث خاص لـ “صدى البلد” لفتت مستشارة تنمية المشاريع في الهيئة الوطنية لشؤون المرأة اللبنانية ريتا شمالي الى ان قانون العمل لا يزال معمولاً به منذ العام 1946، مما يدل على ان تعديله بات ضرورة ملحة، موضحةً ان إقتراح تعديل اجازة الأمومة ركّز على المادتين 28 و 29 من قانون العمل اللبناني
واشارت شمالي الى ان مشروع القانون قدم من قبل الهيئة في العام 2011 ضمن حملة وطنية لتنزيه القوانين ذات الأثر الإقتصادي ضد المرأة، تحت إسم “وين بعدنا”، وقد قدم المشروع على يد النائبين جيلبيرت زوين وميشال موسى. ولفتت الى ان تعديل المادة 28 اصبح بموجبه انه “يحق للنساء العاملات ان ينلن إجازة امومة لمدّة عشرة اسابيع، تشمل المدّة التي تتقدم الولادة والمدّة التي تليها، وذلك بعد إبرازهن شهادة طبية عن تاريخ الولادة المحتمل
كما وفي المادة 29 “يدفع الأجر كاملا للمرأة اثناء الإجازة ويحق لها تقاضي أجر عن مدّة الإجازة السنوية العادية التي تحصل عليها خلال السنة، كما ويحظر صرف المرأة من الخدمة او توجيه انذار اليها خلال فترة الولادة، ما لم يثبت انها عملت في مكان آخر خلال الأمومة
وتطرقت الى المادة 38 من المرسوم 112 الخاص بموظفي القطاع العام، حيث كانت مدّة إجازة الأمومة محددة بـ60 يوماً، فتوحدت بإقرار التمديد بين القطاعين العام والخاص لتكون لجميع الأمهات 10 اسابيع
ورأت شمالي ان المدّة المعدلة باتت واقعية، متسائلةً كيف يمكن لأي ام ان تترك رضيعها بعد اربعين يوما من الولادة فحتى هي بحاجة الى راحة جسدية اكثر، لافتةً الى انه و”بحسب منظمة العمل الدولية إجازة الأمومة يجب ان تكون اقله 14 اسبوعا ولكننا رضينا اليوم بعشرة آملين ان تزيد المهلة في ما بعد
وقد وجد القرار اصداءه في الشارع خصوصاً لدى الأمهات الحوامل حالياً، فرانيا موظفة في إحدى الشركات الخاصة، كانت قد طلبت من مديرها تمديد مهلة أمومتها، التي تنوي اخذها بعد شهرين وان تعتبرها الشركة إجازة غير مدفوعة، إلا ان المدير رفض الأمر، ولكنها بالأمس فرحت جداً بالقرار . وقالت “فعلاً اربعون يوماً لا تكفي، فالأم في بداية الأمر تكون ملبّكة خصوصاً ان كانت تجربتها الأولى، فهي بحاجة ان تبقى فترة اطول مع طفلها، فإجازة 10 اسابيع كافية لوضع علاقة ثابتة بين الأم والطفل
وبدورها اعتبرت لمى ان “القرار اتى متأخراً بعد ان تم رفضه لسنوات من قبل الهيئات الإقتصادية وارباب العمل خوفاً على مصالحهم، إذ ان قانون العمل مجحف في لبنان ويجعل الموظفين عبيداً”، مضيفةً انه ومن خلال هذا القرار سيفكر اصحاب الشركات مرتين قبل توظيف النساء
يمكن لمدّة 10 اسابيع الا تكون كافية ومحقة كي تنال الأم إجازة امومة عادلة ، ولكن هذه الخطوة تعتبر بصيص امل لكل الأمهات العاملات اللواتي طالما تمنين إقرار هذا القانون، بالإضافة الى النظر لأوضاعهن المهنية الصعبة، لأن الأم هي موظفة مزدوجة في البيت وفي الشركة التي تعمل فيها
Report Stresses Need for Bold Moves toward Gender Equality at Work. Gender at Work: A Companion to the World Development Report on Jobs
Empowering women at work advances fight to end poverty, World Bank Group says
WASHINGTON, Feb. 20, 2014—A new report by the World Bank Group stresses the need for bold, coordinated actions to advance equal opportunities for women in the world of work, such as addressing gender biases early, expanding women’s access to property and finance, and raising legal retirement ages—with major payoffs in tackling poverty.
By virtually every global measure, women are more economically excluded than men, according to Gender at Work. Trends suggest women’s labor force participation worldwide over the last two decades has stagnated, dropping from 57 to 55 percent globally. This is despite accumulating evidence that jobs benefit women, families, businesses, and communities.
“We know that reducing gender gaps in the world of work can yield broad development dividends: improving child health and education, enhancing poverty reduction, and catalyzing productivity,” World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim said. “This agenda is urgent. Failure to act represents a huge missed opportunity. Progress so far has been too little and too slow.”
“Today, many more girls are going to school and living longer, healthier lives than 30 or even 10 years ago. But this has not translated into broader gains,” Kim said. “Too many women still lack basic freedoms and opportunities and face huge inequalities in the world of work.”
The report says since women face multiple constraints to jobs, starting early and extending throughout their lives, progressive, broad-based, and coordinated policy action is needed to close gender gaps. A companion to the 2013 World Development Report on jobs, it says options should include mainstreaming gender equality into jobs and growth strategies, reforming legal systems, and engaging the private sector in innovative solutions to promote gender equality.
It also says social norms can exacerbate the deprivation and constraints women face. Nearly four in 10 people globally—close to one half in developing countries—agree that when jobs are scarce, men are more entitled to them than women. Common constraints faced by the most disadvantaged women include lack of mobility, time, and skills, exposure to violence, and the absence of basic legal rights.
“Poor women in particular are likely to confront multiple, overlapping constraints,” World Bank Group Gender and Development Director Joni Klugman, co–author of the report with Matthew Morton, said. “Leveling the playing field and unleashing their economic potential could be a game-changer in tackling extreme poverty.”
In Latin America and the Caribbean, women’s labor force participation has risen by 35 percent since 1990. Analysis by the World Bank Group has found that in 2010, extreme poverty would have been 30 percent higher and average income inequality 28 percent higher, were it not for women’s increased income through increased labor earnings, access to pensions, and labor force participation from 2000-2010.
Country-level diagnostics are vital to help governments in determining the best policies and more involvement by the private sector—by far the largest source of jobs—is critical, the report says. The private sector can lead the way by creating family-friendly working environment and policies, attracting women into non-traditional roles and sectors, and reviewing human resource policies and systems for addressing discrimination and harassment. And more investment is needed to fill major gaps in data and knowledge.
To advance gender equality at work, the report recommends governments target actions that cover a woman’s life cycle—saying interventions that focus only on women of productive age start too late and end too early. Biases can begin very early in life, sometimes in subtle ways, making it ultimately difficult and costly to resolve inequality.
Gender at Work recommends a range of policies for governments to consider over a woman’s lifetime:
- During childhood and youth, policies can tackle inequalities through education and training, such as incentives for girls to attend school.
- For women of productive age, actions to be considered include eliminating restrictions in labor and employment; allowing and encouraging women’s ownership and joint-titling of land; and enforcing equitable inheritance laws. Other strategies include family-friendly leave and flexibility policies, affordable childcare and early child development programs, and infrastructure development to reduce burdens on women’s time for household and care work. Equal access to assets and financial services are vital. Addressing constraints outside the formal sector is particularly important in low-income countries, since most people—and more so women—do not work for wages and salaries.
- For older women, governments can support equitable old-age labor regulations combined with appropriate social protection. Retirement and pension ages for men and women should be equal and targeted programs can upgrade skills among older women willing and able to work, while pension policies can provide protection without discouraging women’s work.
The report warns that ageing populations in the developing world will become increasingly important for governments to consider. Through 2050, the old-age dependency ratio in developing countries is expected to soar by 144 percent, during which time the child dependency ratio is projected to fall by 20 percent, altering the nature of the care burden in families and societies.
“Today only half of women’s productive potential is being utilized globally. This is a waste, since gender equality in the world of work is a win-win for development and for business. The commitment must begin with fostering girls’ and boys’ skills and aspirations equally from their early years, so it stays with them long enough that they and future generations enjoy a more equitable and prosperous world,” Klugman said.
The International Labor Organization estimates almost half of women’s productive potential globally is unutilized compared to 22 percent of men’s. Closing these gender gaps could yield enormous dividends for development: A Goldman Sachs study finds that narrowing gender gaps in employment could push per capita income in emerging markets up to 14 percent higher by 2020.
Gender at Work: A Companion to the World Development Report on Jobs
A woman in Rajasthan, India, prepares to drive to her job as a teacher with the Education for All project. Photo: Michael Foley
- Women around the world are more economically excluded than men.
- Social norms affect women’s work by dictating the way they spend their time and undervaluing their potential.
- Legal discrimination is a remarkably common barrier to women’s work.
WASHINGTON, Feb. 20, 2014—Women around the world still face huge, persistent gender gaps at work, according to a new report by the World Bank Group, which calls for bold, innovative measures to level the playing field and unleash women’s economic potential.
By virtually every global measure, women are more economically excluded than men, according to Gender at Work. Trends suggest women’s labor force participation worldwide has stagnated over the past 30 years, dropping from 57 to 55 percent globally, despite accumulating evidence that jobs benefit women, families, businesses, and communities.
“The reasons for this will differ from country to country, but we think that the persistence of norms—which means that women don’t have as much choice over their livelihoods as men—as well as legal barriers to work are both playing important roles,” said Jeni Klugman, World Bank Group Gender and Development Director.
A companion to the 2013 World Development Report on jobs, the report notes that since women face multiple constraints to jobs, starting early and extending throughout their lives, progressive, broad-based, and coordinated policy action is needed to close gender gaps. Common constraints include lack of mobility, time, and skills, exposure to violence, and the absence of basic legal rights.
Poor women in particular are likely to confront multiple, overlapping constraints. Leveling the playing field and unleashing their economic potential could be a game-changer in tackling extreme poverty.
World Bank Group Gender and Development Director and Report Co-Author
Gender at Work also finds that legal discrimination is a remarkably common barrier to women’s work. Restrictive laws can hinder women’s ability to access institutions, own or use property, build credit, or get a job. In 15 countries, women still require their husbands’ consent to work.
To address these inequalities, the report recommends governments target actions that cover a woman’s life cycle—saying interventions that focus only on women of productive age start too late and end too early.
“The commitment must begin with fostering girls’ and boys’ skills and aspirations equally from their early years, so it stays with them long enough that they and future generations enjoy a more equitable and prosperous world,” Klugman said.
• Women’s labor force participation has stagnated, in fact decreasing from 57 percent in 1990 to 55 percent in 2012.
• Women on average earn between 10 and 30 percent less than working men.
• Women are only half as likely as men to have full-time wage jobs for an employer.
• In only five of the 114 countries for which data are available have women reached or surpassed gender parity with men in such occupations as legislators, senior officials, and managers; namely, Colombia, Fiji, Jamaica, Lesotho, and the Philippines.
• Women spend at least twice as much time as men on unpaid domestic work such as caring and housework.
• A total of 128 countries have at least one sex-based legal differentiation, meaning women and men cannot function in the world of work in the same way; in 54 countries, women face five or more legal differences.
• Across developing countries, there is a nine percentage point gap between women and men in having an account at a formal financial institution.
• More than one in three women has experienced either physical or sexual violence by a partner or non-partner sexual violence.
• In 2010-12, 42 countries reported gender gaps in secondary school enrollment rates exceeding 10 percent.
• One in three girls in developing countries is married before reaching her 18th birthday.
Le travail des femmes n’est toujours pas légitime en France / Women’s work not always legitimate in France
Depuis la loi qui leur a permis de travailler sans le consentement de leur mari, elles continuent de se heurter à des obstacles qui empêchent toute reconnaissance de leur travail.
Moins visible, moins reconnu et moins valorisé que celui des hommes, le travail des femmes n’a toujours pas acquis sa pleine légitimité en France près de 50 ans après l’octroi aux femmes du droit à exercer librement une activité, dit une étude du Conseil économique social et environnemental (CESE) publiée mardi 25 février.
Depuis la loi de 1965 qui leur a permis de travailler sans le consentement de leur mari, leur situation a certes évolué mais elles continuent de se heurter à des obstacles qui empêchent toute reconnaissance de leur travail, relève le CESE.
Si l’on s’en tient aux chiffres, la tendance relevée au cours des dernières décennies est positive: en 2011, 14,8 millions d’hommes et 13,5 millions de femmes sont recensés comme actifs, contre 13,2 millions d’hommes et 6,6 millions de femmes au début des années 1960.
Mais cette évolution ne doit pas pour autant masquer le chemin que les mentalités doivent encore parcourir en France pour que le travail des femmes soit reconnu à égalité avec celui des hommes, souligne le rapporteur de l’étude, Hélène Fauvel.
Plus de CDD
Dans une étude de l’Insee de 2011, une personne sur quatre pensait qu’en période de crise, les hommes devraient être prioritaires pour trouver un emploi, une proportion toutefois moins importante chez les 20-24 ans que chez les 75-79 ans.
L’accès à l’emploi reste plus difficile pour les jeunes femmes faiblement qualifiées que pour leurs homologues masculins et les femmes sont plus souvent recrutées en CDD.
“Le droit à l’autonomie économique des femmes grâce à leur travail n’est pas encore pleinement reconnu et la notion de salaire d’appoint reste encore très présente”, écrit Hélène Fauvel.
“Les écarts de salaire qui ne se réduisent plus depuis les années 1990 restent importants et concernent tous les secteurs et toutes les catégories socioprofessionnelles, contribuent à renforcer l’idée d’une moindre légitimité du travail des femmes”, ajoute-t-elle.
Selon les données 2009 de la DARES, la direction de l’animation de la recherche, des études et des statistiques, la rémunération annuelle des femmes est en moyenne inférieure de 27 % à celle des hommes.
Difficile conciliation vie pro/vie perso
Concernant l’éloignement des femmes du marché du travail, le CESE distingue trois grandes catégories de raisons invoquées par les mères pour expliquer leur retrait du marché du travail.
En premier lieu figure la conciliation entre vie familiale et vie professionnelle, “une expression qui ne s’applique qu’exclusivement aux femmes dans l’esprit des employeurs comme aux yeux de l’opinion publique”, note le CESE.
Les femmes sont plus nombreuses que les hommes à s’arrêter de travailler pour prendre un congé parental, à réduire leur temps de travail ou à cesser toute activité lorsque la conciliation devient trop compliquée.
Or, selon une étude de la Caisse nationale des allocations familiales (Cnaf), 40% des mères qui ont arrêté de travailler après une naissance auraient préféré poursuivre leur activité.
Autres obstacles invoqués, les contraintes pratiques et financières liées aux modes de garde, soit indisponibles, soit trop chers, et les conditions de travail parmi lesquelles les horaires ont un poids déterminant.
Face à ces difficultés, “l’implication des employeurs reste encore timide, essentiellement sous forme d’aides financières et beaucoup moins en terme de souplesse horaire pourtant souhaitée”, constate le CESE.
Diversifier les modes d’accueil des enfants
La délégation aux droits des femmes et à l’égalité du CESE préconise donc de développer et de diversifier les modes d’accueil des enfants, “condition sine qua non pour permettre aux femmes de travailler en élevant leurs enfants.”
Elle appelle également les pouvoirs publics à encourager la gestion partagée des responsabilités familiales entre les deux parents, en incitant les pères à s’impliquer davantage.
La délégation prône la mise en place d’une préparation du retour à l’emploi des femmes en congé parental via une offre de formation et un accompagnement individualisé.
L’enjeu est de taille, souligne Hélène Fauvel. “Oeuvrer pour une meilleure insertion professionnelle des femmes, c’est tout à la fois conforter leur statut social et garantir leur autonomie financière et familiale”.
A new ILO study examines the constraints on working women in Algeria and the opportunities available to them.
Despite the considerable advances seen in the Algerian political sphere, where women constitute over 31 per cent of the deputies to the National Assembly (*), their economic participation remains very low.
In 2011, with a proportion of 17.7 per cent of women in the workforce, Algeria – alongside Iraq and Syria – was among the countries with the lowest level of female economic participation in the world – according to an ILO study pending publication (**). Women are, nevertheless, gradually beginning to enter the workforce. According to the National Statistical Office of Algeria, by 2013 the female labour force participation rate had risen to 19 per cent.
“Invisible” home-based activities
According to the ILO study, the female labour force participation rate is held back by a multitude of complex, notably sociocultural, factors.
Parts of the population do not consider that women who perform unpaid home-based activities in such areas as the agricultural, livestock, textile and clothing sectors are really part of the labour force.
The weight of tradition or certain family constraints restrict women’s work and travel opportunities.
Young women often have little contact with the world outside their family circle and are also less well informed and less prepared for entrepreneurial life. Families are often more inclined to provide moral and financial support to boys for enterprise-creation projects.
The lady from Tissemsilt herself told the ILO investigators: “I would like my daughter to go to university, but I do not want her to work. I would like her to study, to become cultured and to achieve all she can at university, that would be a good thing, but I would prefer her not to work as she will never be respected at work. The men have no respect for young women.”
This statement by a wife and mother of five children, which appears in the ILO study, speaks volumes about cultural obstacles to the participation of women in working life.
Hearing what women have to say
In addition to conducting a detailed analysis of labour market statistics for women between 2001 and 2011, the study’s authors – Jacques Charmes and Malika Remaoun – also spoke to women directly in order to compare the statistical data collected with the daily reality experienced by Algerian women.
The women described their lives and ambitions and reflected on their own family, educational and occupational experiences. The study presents a number of positive developments seen in women’s employment, which are the result of various mechanisms put in place for them by the authorities.
The report stresses, however, that women hold their destiny in their own hands and future progress will depend on their determination to push back the boundaries and overcome obstacles.
Concluding the debate more eloquently than any statistic, one woman entrepreneur from Tiaret notes:
“It is also a question of not wanting to be dependent on men, of having a career, of demonstrating one’s true abilities. And I think that women are more determined, they have more to offer.”
* In accordance with a law passed in November 2011, which imposes a female quota of 20–50 per cent of the seats on their list.
** Les contraintes et opportunités pour l’emploi des femmes en Algérie, ILO, Algiers, 2014 (pending publication).
Si mère au foyer était une qualification reconnue, les Américaines gagneraient très bien leur vie. Le site américain ” Salary ” a estimé, après avoir effectué un sondage auprès de 6 000 mères en 2013, que les tàches qu’elles accomplissent devraient leur rapporter 6 917 euros par mois. Soit un salaire non négligeable de 83 006 E par an. Selon ” Salary “, une mère au foyer américaine travaille en effet environ 94 heures chaque semaine et fait appel à une multitude de compétences : taxi, femme de ménage, psychologue, cuisinière, ou encore professeure. Plus généralement, le site permet à chaque femme de calculer son salaire virtuel, en indiquant combien d’enfants elle a, si elle a un travail, où elle vit, et combien de temps elle consacre à chaque tàche.Les femmes seraient mieux payées que les hommesSi le travail domestique était reconnu, les hommes auraient pour la première fois un salaire inférieur à celui des femmes. Les pères ne passent en effet que 55,7 heures par semaine à s’occuper des tàches ménagères, selon ” Salary “. ” Cette étude est faite simplement pour s’amuser et n’est en aucun cas purement scientifique “, a toutefois précisé le site dans son article. Il n’empêche : une fois de plus, les inégalités femmes/hommes restent frappantes.
Salary.com’s 13th Annual Mom Salary Survey
How Much is Your Mom Worth?
Moms. We love them and for good reason. After all, they brought us into the world, raised us, taught us right from wrong and supported us in just about everything we’ve ever done. Biological? Adopted? It doesn’t matter. We owe our mothers everything. And even though they’re too selfless to collect, Salary.com is giving you the chance to hand your mom a check on Mother’s Day by going to our Mom Salary Wizard and finding out what your mom would be paid if moms were – you know – actually compensated.
So that’s why, for the 13th consecutive year, Salary.com surveyed more than 6,000 moms to find out what their top 10 most time-consuming jobs are and how much time per week they spend on each. Then we applied our extensive salary data to each job, factored in the number of hours worked including overtime, crunched all the numbers and POOF – we get an estimate of what mothers would make if they were paid an annual salary.
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En France, d’après le Haut Conseil à l’égalité entre les hommes et les femmes, le secteur privé compte 46% de salariées, mais seuls 20% des cadres dirigeants sont des femmes, payées 32% de moins que les hommes. En cause? Les stéréotypes sexistes, selon le ministère des droits des femmes qui a demandé au Commissariat général à la stratégie et à la prospective de plancher sur un ensemble de propositions destinées à lutter contre ces préjugés dès le plus jeune âge.
Les 30 propositions du rapport piloté par Marie-Cécile Naves et Vanessa Wisnia-Weill couvrent tous les champs de la vie quotidienne des enfants et des adolescents -école, orientation, pratique sportive et culturelle, et santé- mais le domaine de la vie scolaire et du choix des études centralise à lui seul plus de la moitié des propositions.
Parce que dans les esprits des jeunes et de leurs familles, les métiers, et donc les choix d’orientation, ont encore un sexe, le rapport met l’accent sur des dispositifs qui permettraient de lutter contre ces représentations: identifier les métiers porteurs non-mixtes et en assurer la promotion auprès des jeunes, proposer dès le 1er trimestre de 3e des rencontres entre familles, responsables d’établissement, et chambres de métiers et d’artisanat pour mieux informer sur les filières professionnelles, utiliser le levier des formations en alternance en aidant les jeunes filles à trouver des contrats en apprentissage dans les métiers dits masculins.
Du côté des pratiques éducatives, le Commissariat général à la stratégie et à la prospective propose de contractualiser avec les éditeurs de manuels scolaires pour qu’ils assurent un nombre équilibré de personnages féminins et masculins, de favoriser en classe au quotidien la constitution de groupes ou de binômes mixtes, et surtout de former les responsables d’établissements, du primaire au secondaire, afin de développer une plus grande neutralité des attentes vis-à-vis des élèves quelque soit leur sexe -plusieurs études ayant démontré que les professeurs accordent moins d’attention aux filles qu’aux garçons.
Les pères ne sont pas oubliés dans le rapport, avec trois propositions destinées à leur permettre de s’impliquer davantage dans leur paternité, dont le développement de dispositifs de préparation à la naissance au sein des maternités, et la promotion auprès des entreprises et des administrations d’une “charte des temps flexibles positifs” qui les accompagneraient dans la difficile conciliation entre vie professionnelle et vie familiale, via le job-sharing ou le télétravail.
Nupur Howlader is Bangladesh’s only nationally-qualified female welder. An ILO-EU skills training programme has given her the chance to both earn a better living and challenge gender stereotypes.
|23-year old Nupur Howlader is the shipyard’s only female tradesperson. She is also about to become Bangladesh’s first nationally-certified female welder.”|
One of the workers is a little different from the rest. Her long dark hair is tucked into a hard hat, her elegant hands are encased in thick gloves and her sparkling eyes are hidden behind safety glasses. 23-year old Nupur Howlader is the shipyard’s only female tradesperson. She is also about to become Bangladesh’s first nationally-certified female welder – the result of a skills training programme run by the ILO and funded by the European Union (EU) that provides technical skills to young and under-employed people. In a country where women’s participation in technical and vocational education is strikingly low, Nupur is an important role model.
“When my husband and I told our families what we wanted to do they were in total confusion. It caused a lot of tension, and they kept questioning why we wanted to take risks,” said Nupur. “I just kept thinking that if I learn how to do something useful I can make much more money than working at home. If more people start thinking this way our country can really progress. I can take my skills anywhere, they are mine forever”.
In just six months Nupur has raced through her theoretical lessons at Barisal Technical School and College and her practical placement at the Sundarbans shipyard. She is now in the last stages of her practical training at Linde Bangladesh, a local branch of the international industrial gas and engineering company. She is now nationally-certified at Level 1, meaning she can weld steel plates, make sheet metal and interpret technical drawings, among other skills. She will soon be nationally-certified at Level 2, meaning she will be able to do arc welding, join different metals and have an understanding of metallurgy.
But, as well as her technical success, Nupur is also takes pride in the way that she is challenging the status quo. “The traditional mindset is that people should pursue general education in Bangladesh. What we have realized though is that job possibilities after getting technical education are as good as after general education,” she said. “I am a welder and my skills are needed by many businesses. Being a woman has not held me back either – women can do anything. I want to see all women in jobs. Women should not be begging on the streets of Dhaka; they should have skills and be working”.
Srinivas Reddy, Director of ILO Country Office for Bangladesh agrees. “This is a great move towards breaking gender stereotypes and I hope that success of Nupur will motivate more and more women to take up non-traditional skills with decent work opportunities”.
Nationally-recognised qualifications are part of Bangladesh’s new National Technical and Vocational Qualifications Framework. The framework ensures training meets current industry skill requirements and is delivered in the shortest possible time. The ILO-run skills training programme, from which Nupur is about to graduate, is part of a comprehensive package of initiatives called the Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Reform Project, that is working to make skills across the country relevant, high quality and quickly deliverable.
The TVET Reform Project, funded by the EU, also focuses on making skills more accessible to women in Bangladesh. Female participation in technical education is strikingly low, ranging from 9 to 13 per cent in public institutions. The Government of Bangladesh, with support from the ILO, last year drafted the National Strategy for Promotion of Gender Equality in TVET, which was the first of its kind in the technical education sector.
“Promoting gender equality is a key aim of the TVET Reform Project and through our programmes we are seeing more and more young women like Nupur learning skills and challenging conservative attitudes about gender,” said William Hanna, Ambassador, Head of the EU Delegation to Bangladesh. “Bangladesh has made great progress in promoting gender equality by closing the gender gap in gross and net enrolment ratios in primary and secondary education. This success now needs to be replicated in the technical education sector”.
By Arwa Gaballa
CAIRO, Nov 12 (Aswat Masriya) – Women are the main breadwinners in as many as 30 percent of Egyptian households, a role frowned on by conservative Egyptian society but increasingly important in a country plunged into dire economic straits by the turbulent politics of the post-Mubarak era.
Many of them are poor, illiterate and lacking experience of formal employment, and are forced into menial work in the informal economy, doing poorly paid jobs with no insurance or pension and involving exposure to the public gaze that attracts the disapproval of neighbours.
“Things were difficult before the uprising too, with those in power robbing us, but at least the little we had was enough to live on,” said Zeinab Abdel Fattah, 64. “Now we have nothing. Life has become unbearable.”
Abdel Fattah, who has a family of eight, leaves her home every morning at 6 a.m. for the city centre. Sitting cross-legged on a platform in the heart of Cairo, she sells eggs, eggplants and cottage cheese to passersby, but often returns empty-handed.
“No one buys anything anymore,” she said.
A Thomson Reuters Foundation poll of gender experts found Egypt to be the worst country in the Arab world to be a woman, due to endemic sexual harassment, a surge in trafficking, high rates of female genital mutilation and a rollback of freedoms since the revolution.
Egypt scored badly on work-related issues, too. Gender-based discrimination affects many women in the workplace and is rarely punished, respondents said.
While many Egyptian women have to work because their husbands died or divorced or abandoned them, others, like Abdel Fattah, support their family because their husband’s pension is small or his work is irregular or unstable.
“My husband was only a worker before he retired; he can’t read, you see. Now his pension is 500 Egyptian pounds ($72.57), which is not enough to feed us.”
Mona Ezzat of the New Woman Foundation, an advocacy group, said that while official data estimate 16 percent of Egyptian breadwinners are women, independent sources put the figure as high as 30 percent.
“Because the majority of these women are impoverished and thus are mostly illiterate and have no skills or experience, they resort to the informal economy, cleaning houses, street vending and so on,” she said.
The problem with working in the informal economy is that these women are not entitled to pensions or health or social insurance, and they are often exposed to physical and psychological violence that they cannot challenge, as they enjoy no legal protection.
Even if Abdel Fattah’s thin grey hair weren’t showing beneath her worn-out headscarf, the wrinkles on her tired face, her missing teeth and rough, dirty hands were evidence of the difficult life she leads.
Like her husband, Abdel Fattah cannot read or write, but all her children can.
“My six children can read. Some of my children even went to university!” she said proudly with a big smile. “That was when things were easier, before they got this bad.”
The New Woman Foundation’s Ezzat said: “The struggles of breadwinners have worsened as Egypt’s economy deteriorated.” She added that there is no real plan for economic growth, as can be seen from the increase in the number of street vendors struggling to scrape a living.
The economy grew by 7 percent a year in the period leading to the popular uprising that toppled Hosni Mubarak in 2011 — part of the Arab Spring that swept North Africa — but has since slowed sharply because of the collapse of tourism and the fall in foreign investment.
GDP growth last year was only 2.1 percent, down from 2.2 percent in 2011, the state news agency reported earlier this month — worryingly low for a country whose population of 85 million suffers from high unemployment and is expected to reach 100 million by 2030.
Price rises have put many goods beyond the reach of average households, and this has led the government to draw up a plan to distribute basic supplies at subsidized prices.
In Abdel Fattah’s case, her already grinding burden is made worse by her neighbours’ criticism of her for working at her age, “as if it was by choice”.
“They think there is a lot of money in what I do,” she laughed, adding that her neighbours mock her for having to work when she has six grown-up children.
Ezzat explains that the way female breadwinners are viewed and treated in Egypt is a psychological burden, especially as many of them live in poor areas which tend to be more conservative and more critical.
Female breadwinners are often criticised for spending too much time outside their home without a male figure around, a cultural judgment that is not limited to poor neighbourhoods, Ezzat said.
Neighbourly criticism and social pressure often force these women either to take their sons out of school and send them off to work in their place, or to marry off their daughters quickly to shift the responsibility for earning the family income to their husbands.
“The sons are deprived of getting an education and the daughters are married off before their time,” Ezzat said.
ANA HUNNA CAMPAIGN
Rights activists and women’s rights organizations in the Middle East posted their thoughts on female breadwinners in a Twitter campaign on Saturday.
Hundreds of activists around the Middle East joined the online debate, using the hashtags “#Loqmet3ish” and “#anahunna”. The first hashtag, Loqmet3ish, means “a piece of bread”, an Arabic phrase used widely to describe making a living.
The campaign, organized by Ana Hunna (I Am Here), said that women are the main supporters of 33 percent of Egyptian households and families.
“Despite the fact that norms (are) transforming in Egypt, women are still generally defined as dependants and subordinate to men,” Ana Hunna posted on its account.
Ana Hunna started out in 2011 as an online campaign to empower working women, but gradually expanded and now aspires to become an actual initiative, one of the organizers, Esraa Saleh, told Aswat Masriya.
The campaign used to depend on making films to raise awareness of the need for gender equality in employment, but it is now looking for more activities that could have a greater impact on the ground, Saleh said.
“If we (female breadwinners) decide to not work for just one week, this society will be paralyzed,” Rana Allam wrote on Twitter.
“It’s time we recognized Arab women; the real heroes of our generation,” said Hebbah Hussein, another participant in the campaign. “Mothers and breadwinners will shape Egypt’s future.”
Many Societies Gradually Moving to Dismantle Gender Discrimination, Yet More Can Be Done, Says World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim
September 24, 2013
Out of 143 economies surveyed at least 90 percent had one or more legal differences that hinder women’s ability to work and open businesses, according to the report Women, Business and the Law 2014, issued jointly by the World Bank Group and the International Finance Corporation (IFC.)
LONDON, September 24, 2013 —A new World Bank and IFC report finds legal and regulatory barriers to women’s economic inclusion have decreased over the past 50 years globally, but many laws still hinder women’s participation in the economy. Laws restricting women’s economic activity are currently most prevalent in the Middle East and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
The third in a series, Women, Business and the Law 2014: Removing Restrictions to Enhance Gender Equality monitors regulations affecting women entrepreneurs and employees in 143 economies. This edition highlights reforms carried out over the past two years, examines the evolution of women’s property rights and legal decision making ability since 1960 and expands coverage to examine legal protections addressing violence against women.
“The ideal of equality before the law and equality of economic opportunity isn’t just wise social policy: It’s smart economic policy,” said World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim. “When women and men participate in economic life on an equal footing, they can contribute their energies to building a more cohesive society and a more resilient economy. The surest way to help enrich the lives of families, communities and economies is to allow every individual to live up to her or his fullest creative potential.”
“Our latest edition of Women, Business and the Law shows that many societies have made progress, gradually moving to dismantle ingrained forms of discrimination against women,” said Kim. “Yet a great deal remains to be done.”
This report finds 44 economies have made 48 legal changes, thus increasing women’s economic opportunities over the past two years. Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, the Philippines and the Slovak Republic had the most reforms. Among the reforms, husbands can no longer unilaterally stop their wives from working in Côte d’Ivoire and Mali, the Philippines has lifted restrictions on night work for women, and the Slovak Republic increased the percentage of wages paid during maternity leave.
The report finds economies in Eastern Europe and Central Asia have the most extensive lists of jobs women cannot do. For example, in the Russian Federation women cannot drive trucks in the agricultural sector, in Belarus they cannot be carpenters and in Kazakhstan they cannot be welders. These restrictions may have arisen from a desire to protect women, but can limit their employment options. The report shows economies with the most job restrictions on women have lower female participation in the formal labor force.
“Progress on gender equality under the law is accelerating,” said Augusto Lopez-Claros, Director, Global Indicators and Analysis, World Bank Group. “Our data shows that over the past 50 years countries everywhere have started removing long-standing restrictions on women’s ability to participate more fully in the economy. Although the progress has been uneven across the world, there is widespread recognition that the economic empowerment of women is crucial for competitiveness and prosperity.”
Between 1960 and 2010, more than half the restrictions on women’s property rights and ability to conduct legal transactions were removed in the 100 economies examined. Restrictions in three regions – Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and East Asia and the Pacific – were cut in half. While some restrictions were removed in South Asia and in the Middle East and North Africa, these two regions reformed the least.
Another major innovation in the report is new data on the existence and scope of laws on two areas of violence against women: sexual harassment and domestic violence. Covering 100 economies, the data show that prohibitions against sexual harassment in the workplace are widespread – 78 economies have legislation and over half of these criminalize the behavior. Legislation on domestic violence is also widespread –76 economies have laws prohibiting domestic violence. The region with the fewest laws on domestic violence is the Middle East and North Africa.
The report shows lower gender legal parity is associated with fewer women participating in firm ownership, while policies encouraging women to join and remain in the labor force are associated with greater income equality. Even though the report offers signs of improvement for women’s economic opportunities globally, it shows economies can do more to ensure women’s participation in economic life.
About the Women, Business and the Law Report series:
Women, Business and the Law measures how laws, regulations and institutions differentiate between women and men in ways that may affect women’s incentives or capacity to work or to set up and run a business. It analyzes legal differences on the basis of gender in 143 economies, covering six areas: gaining access to institutions, using property, getting a job, providing incentives to work, building credit, and going to court. The project provides a clear picture of gender gaps based on legal differences in each economy, but it does not capture the full extent of the gender gap, nor does it indicate the relative importance of each aspect covered. This year’s report was published by Bloomsbury Publishing.
About the World Bank Group
The World Bank Group is one of the world’s largest sources of funding and development expertise for developing countries. It comprises five closely associated institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA), which together form the World Bank; the International Finance Corporation (IFC); the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA); and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). Each institution plays a distinct role in pursuing the World Bank Group’s mission to fight poverty and improve living standards for people in the developing world. For more information, please visit http://www.worldbank.org, http://www.miga.org, and http://www.ifc.org.
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